Core Scales

The ClimateQUAL®: OCDA survey measures the following organizational climates:

Organizational Climate

Organizational climate refers to the interpretative frameworks shared by employees regarding the priorities of their organization and it helps them understand what behavior is rewarded, supported, and expected in the organization (Schneider, 1990). Employees develop these organizational perceptions as a result of their attempts to make “sense” of the policies, practices, and procedures endorsed and enacted in an organization. There are 9 ClimateQUAL®: OCDA organizational climate scales.

1. Organizational Climate for Justice

This construct reflects the degree to which the organization has policies, practices, and procedures that treat employees fairly and justly. Research has shown that Organizational Climate for Justice can be separated into four dimensions. Specifically, Distributive Justice – the degree to which staff perceives that rewards are fairly distributed based upon performance. Procedural Justice – the degree to which staff perceives the procedures that determine the distribution of rewards are uniformly applied. Interpersonal Justice – the degree to which staff perceives there is fairness and respectfulness between employees and supervisors. Informational Justice – the degree to which staff perceives the explanation for distribution of procedures and rewards are provided.

  • Distributive Justice. Distributive Justice reflects the employees’ perceptions regarding the extent to which the rewards that they receive (e.g., pay, opportunities to advance, etc.) is adequate given their level of effort and work. A sample question is “do the rewards in your division reflect the effort that division members put into their work”.
  • Procedural Justice. While Distributive Justice addresses the fairness of outcomes, Procedural Justice addresses the fairness of the procedures used to come to those outcomes (i.e. performance evaluations, amongst others). A sample question is “have the procedures used to determine rewards been applied consistently”.
  • Interpersonal Justice. Interpersonal justice refers to the extent to which other people in the workplace, such as supervisors, treat an employee fairly. A sample question is “has the authority figure who determines rewards treated division members in a polite manner”.
  • Informational Justice. Informational justice refers to whether or not an employee has access to the information he/she needs. This type of justice indicates that transparency—that is, supervisors being honest and open with employees—is imperative to an employee’s sense of justice in the workplace. A sample question is “has the authority figure who determines rewards for your division explained procedures thoroughly”.

2. Climate for Leadership

This construct assesses the nature of organizational leadership. It assesses whether leaders have good working relationships with employees as well as the extent to which leaders are trusted by employees. Also, it measures the extent to which leaders are seen as authentic and perceived to be truly passionate about customer service. There were two dimensions to this construct. In each of these dimensions, the term “leader” is used to denote employees’ immediate supervisor(s).

  • Leader Member Relationship Quality. Leader Member Relationship Quality refers to the quality of an individual’s relationship with their immediate supervisor. A sample question is “I can count on my immediate supervisor to support me even when I’m in a tough situation at work”.
  • Authentic Transformational Leadership. An authentic transformational leader is ethical, honest, and inspiring. Employees of authentic transformational leaders report these leaders as being highly transparent—that is, that the transformational leader is consistent in their actions, and that the leader truly believes what he/she claims he believes. A sample question is “My immediate supervisor is convincing when communicating his/her vision”.

3. Climate for Deep Diversity

Climate for deep diversity refers to the extent that the organization has policies, practices, and procedures that encourage diversity of ideas, values, and experiences. Two dimensions were measured.

  • Standardization of Procedures Across Groups refers to the consistency of application of procedures across subgroups. A sample question is “Performance reviews are based on objective criteria that minimize personal biases and prejudices”.
  • Valuing Diversity reflects the extent to which the organization values diversity and diversity-related initiatives. A sample question is “This organization values the different perspectives that employees bring to the workplace”.

4. Climate for Demographic Diversity

The Climate for Demographic Diversity reflects the extent to which the library has policies, practices and procedures that support diversity among minority and majority employees. Four dimensions were assessed.

  • Climate for Demographic Diversity: Race, refers to the extent to which the library supports racial diversity. A sample question is “The race of a team/work unit member does NOT affect how they are valued on this team/work unit”.
  • Climate for Demographic Diversity: Gender, reflects the extent to which an individual team supports diversity of genders. A sample question is “The gender of a team/work unit member does NOT affect how they are valued on this team/work unit”.
  • Climate for Demographic Diversity: Rank, reflects whether the library has a climate that supports diversity among employees of different rank. A sample question is “The rank of a team/work unit member does NOT affect how they are valued on this team/work unit”.
  • Climate for Demographic Diversity: Sexual Orientation, assesses the extent to which the library has a climate supportive of sexual-orientation related diversity. A sample question is “The sexual orientation of a team/work unit member does NOT affect how they are valued on this team/work unit”.

5. Climate for Innovation: Co-Workers

A Climate for Innovation refers to the extent to which co-workers encourage each other to share and come up with innovative solutions. A sample question is “coworkers tell each other about other new information that can be used to increase job performance”.

6. Climate for Continual Learning

An organization with a Climate for Continual Learning has policies, practices, and procedures that emphasize continued employee education. A sample question is “there is excellent on-the-job training”.

7. Climate for Teamwork

An organization with a Climate for Teamwork enacts policies, practices, and procedures that emphasize the importance and usefulness of teamwork. Two dimensions were measured regarding this climate.

  • Employee Belief in Benefits of Teamwork concerns employees’ opinions of the usefulness and importance of teamwork. A sample question is “Teamwork is important to completing work in this organization”.
  • Structural Facilitation of Teamwork refers to the degree to which the organization’s structure and policies facilitate and encourage teamwork. A sample question is “The structure of this organization helps facilitate teamwork”.

8. Climate for Customer Service

An organization with a Climate for Customer Service enacts policies, practices, and procedures that clearly indicate the importance and value of customer service. Seven items were used to measure this concept. A sample question is “Library employees have the job knowledge and skills required to deliver superior quality work and service”.

9. Climate for Psychological Safety

A Climate for Psychological Safety refers to the degree to which an organization or teams therein encourage employees to freely share opinions with each other and with management. An organization with a climate for psychological safety provides a safe environment for self-expression. A sample question is “As an employee in this library one is able to bring up problems and tough issues”.


Organizational Attitudes

The information summarized in this section measures employee attitude on a number of different topics, such as their commitment to the organization, their satisfaction with their work, the extent to which they feel empowered. The organizational attitude measures included in the ClimateQUAL®: OCDA are therefore different reflections of the current workforce’s morale. In other words, these measures can be thought of as an assessment of the current health of the employed workforce.

1. Job Satisfaction

Our measure of job satisfaction uses one question to assess how satisfied an individual is with their job. Job satisfaction is measured with a 7 point scale (1=least satisfied; 7=most satisfied).

2. Organizational Commitment

Organizational Commitment refers to the extent to which an individual employee is dedicated to staying with, and feels positively about, this organization. A sample question is “I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that normally expected in order to help this organization be successful”.

3. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

An Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is an activity not included in an employee’s job description that they nonetheless conduct to improve the organization. While not a formal part of anyone’s job, most organizations cannot work as efficiently as they do without employees doing some OCBs. A sample question is “Give up time to help others who have work or non-work problems”.

4. Organizational Withdrawal

Organizational Withdrawal refers to the actions that an employee may engage in that distance themselves from the organization and reflect intentions to leave the organization. A sample question is “How often do you explore other job opportunities by checking job listings or want ads”.

5. Team Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace

Team psychological empowerment in the workplace reflects the extent to which an individual feels they can contribute to their team. A sample question is “People in my position can have a large impact on what happens in this Library”.

6. Task Engagement

Task engagement refers to the extent to which an employee is interested in and engaged in his/her work. A sample question is “The work I do is very important to me”.

7. Work Unit Conflict

Conflict in a work unit reflects the amount of disagreements within team members. Two dimensions of work unit conflict were measured.

  • Interpersonal Conflict refers to the amount of personal or emotional conflict amongst a work unit. A sample question is “How much jealousy or rivalry is there among members of your unit”.
  • Task Conflict refers to the disagreements coworkers have over how to complete their tasks. A sample question is “How often do the members of your unit disagree about which procedure should be used to do your work”.